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Adams Elementary School was erected in as a wooden structure and was then called South Ward. The school was named for Judge F. Adams who was known to take an interest in the school and teachers. The school was a two-story. The 6 th graders had gardens. They raised vegetables and sold them to neighbors. The money was used to buy pictures for the room. The school had a fence around it with no gate. The bell was manufactured in in Hillsboro by the C. It was restored by Bob Weathington. Schwartz of Alvarado was a Tech. Schwartz served under Capt. Griffin aboard the bomber, Lady Luck.

The Lady Luck and crew are pictured below. From left, back row: Staff Sgt. Edwards, Left waist gunner; Lt. Swanson, co-pilot; Capt. Griffin, pilot; Lt. Effinger, navigator; and Lt. Taylor, bombardier. Front row, from left: Tech. Eason, upper turrent gunner; staff Sgt. Henderson, right waist gunner; Tech. Schwartz, radioman-gunner; Staff Sgt. Wiegand, tail gunner; and Staff Sgt. Plummer, bottom turret gunner. There were 45 machines, 75 foot ceilings and 23 stalls in a building feet long.

The crane had a 15 ton capacity. Park Hardware was the oldest hardware store in Alvarado and it was in operation for 81 years! Charles Henry Park established the business in assisted by his three sons: Horace, Herbert and George. His grandson, Roy Park continued to manage the business until Courtesy of G. Alan Galleries. The school prospered and enrollment grew.

Irving moved the school to N. Anglin Street in Cleburne. He constructed a large two-story frame building with classrooms on the lower floor and dormitories on the second floor. Girls from the rural areas boarded there. Pictured below is the Industrial Academy Class of Buchanan was the county seat of Johnson County for 10 years. The first term of county court was held February 16, Chief Justice was Henry Trimble. Commissioners were C. Billingsley, J. McKinsey and James Plemmons. Coulson was Sheriff. Buchanan lacked a sustainable water supply and when the State of Texas redistricted the counties it was too far from the center of the county.

All that remains of Buchanan today is a small cemetery. In June of Mrs. Lee Gage pleaded self-defense when she was tried for the murder of her husband who she shot six times! Gaga was given a five year suspended sentence. In January of H. He is buried at the Odom Cemetery. When the Texas legislature created Johnson County, it was named for Col. Middleton T. When the Mexican War broke out in he raised a company of volunteers and served under Zachary Taylor. He was very popular among people who knew him. He served a few years on the frontier, and when the Civil war broke out and Texas succeeded, although he was not in favor of secession himself, he offered his services to the Confederates.

After the war, Col. Johnson served in the Texas legislature. Johnson passed away in Easterwood, Clerk of the Court and A. Onstott, Sheriff. The structure burned in the spring of King who served from thru These gentlemen served the longest time of service in Johnson County history to date. Apologies for the quality of the picture of Sheriff Smith. In Mrs. Mertz and Mrs. Stratton lead a drive to raise funds to have North Anglin sprinkled with water daily to settle the dust. The ladies canvassed the homes on North Anglin to raise the needed funds. The July 29, Alvarado Bulletin reported the marriage of Mr.

The Rev. Simms officiated. Later that day newlyweds were whisked off to the Missouri Pacific depot to begin their honeymoon tour to New York and other northern cities. On July 24, Mr. The buggy weighed pounds and Mr. Lillian is on Farm Road fifteen miles northeast of Cleburne.

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In G. Renfro purchased land from J. Cunningham to establish a town that would be near the line of the International-Great Northern Railroad, which had just built into the area. Both men's wives were named Lillian, hence the name of the town. By the next year Lillian had two churches and a school. In a post office began serving the community. Lillian's population and businesses grew rapidly, and a bank opened there in By Lillian had a population of and for the next twenty years served as a retail center for area farmers and ranchers.

In the community overcame a fire that destroyed most of the buildings on the south side. By the mids its population had reached In there was a stage coach stop in Station Branch southwest of Godley. The building also served as a troop station on the Military Road through Johnson County. When the county seat was moved to Cleburne in the court building and jail were also moved. By Cleburne had seven mercantile houses, two saloons, two hotels, one drug store, three blacksmith shops, two wood shops, one steam mill, a cotton gin and a high school!

Pictured below is Timms Grocers. Elbert Monroe Heath was appointed by the fifth legislature of the State of Texas as the commissioner to organize Johnson County. In he volunteered in the Twentieth Cavalry, commanded by Colonel Bass. In Major Heath was elected sheriff of Johnson County but was forced to resign during Reconstruction because he had served in the Confederate army. The first house built in Cleburne was said to be located at the intersection of North Main and Henderson Streets north west of the courthouse. The house was built by Mrs.

Josephine Wren and was used as a hotel or tavern as well as Mrs. A college once stood on the grounds of the Cooke Elementary School in Cleburne. Roberson, formerly of Southland University, to establish a private school. Several members of the Southland University faculty joined Clebarro College. Barret and Roberson became the owners of the school, which derived its name from Cleburne, Barret, and Roberson.

Funds were sufficient to construct a three-story administration building and, three years later, a women's dormitory. For a decade Clebarro College had an average enrollment of forty. Walter Owen Henry of Cleburne graduated from the U. Naval Academy at Annapolis, Class of He retired as a U. Navy Lieutenant Commander. He was in charge of the U. George and Nancy Hallmark, pictured here with their son Edgar around donated the land for the Prairie Grove School. Boulware has done his whole duty no matter how crowded the streets or what difficulties confronted him.

He is always on hand with his sprinkler. Street sprinkling was necessary because the accumulation of manure and horse urine, as well as other foul and vile contributions from overflowing cesspools and the like, and was considered a health hazard by physicians. Myrtle Corbin was born in Cleburne in He had promotional pamphlets made up and began placing ads in newspapers for people to come see her.

She soon attracted the attention of P. Barnum and worked in his sideshow for five years before retiring from show business. Myrtle married and had four heathy children. The picture below shows the construction of the M. Pittman home in The home was located at North Main Street in Cleburne. Pittman owned and operated the Pittman Mill where he made flour, meal, bran and chops. The home was torn down in to make way for the new Cleburne Shopping Center.

Johnson County, Texas. A Pictorial History, Volume 1. It was constructed with bricks from Easterwood brick yards on Buffalo Creek and included cast iron arched lentils. Tickets cost ten, twenty, and thirty cents at the time. Touring acts presented traveling minstrels, lectures and plays. Note: The building pictured above was titled Brown's Opera House, however I can't see that name on the building. Billingsley, W. Neal, A. Kennard, County Commissioners; J. Easterwood, County Clerk; and A. To this list later in the year were added F. Kirtley, Assessor; J. Waddle, District Clerk; E.

Heath, Justice of the Peace for Precinct No. Kirtley for Precinct No. Menefee for Precinct No. The first court was held in Alvarado at John Waddle's store. On March 29, masked men, thought to be strikers, invaded the Alvarado railroad yards. They locked up guards and broke into the roundhouse where they disabled the engines.

Ramsey, C. Mertz, E. Lewis, R. Poole, V. Smith as a school board to serve with Mayer, W. Hodge to direct the school system. Frank M. Johnson was the first superintendent of schools. Pictured below are members of the Cleburne Volunteer Fire Company taken about The first Cleburne fire unit was formed in He would then run to the fire station and back into a stall to receive the harness to pull the fire fighting machinery. Maybe you can recognize one of the students in the picture below.

The students were: Back row — L. Seth Cummings, Marion Head, D. Sherman and Esther Head. Second row -? The train was pulled by engine No. Long, engineer and Ed Alsup, fireman. As the train left Keene at 9 PM a huge thunder storm rolled over Johnson County and the track gave way. The engine went into the creek killing Long and Alsup. The courthouse was completed in October of and dedicated in November of that year. The courthouse burned down on April 15, , the same day the Titanic sank.

Most of the county records were saved by the brave men of Cleburne. City Marshal M. Bledsoe lost his life in saving these important records. The cotton gin, press and a considerable quantity of seed cotton and grain were also destroyed in the fire. In two banks, T. Lorance Bank and Chambers and Brown Bank were both victims of attempted robbery. The robbers might have managed it if not for Benjamin Hatsough who was a cashier at the Chambers and Brown Bank. When one of the robbers pointed a gun at him, Mr.

Hatsough pulled his own gun and began firing. He was shot in the face, but continued to fight off the robbers. All of both banks assets were safe thanks to this brave Cleburne man. The fire destroyed three frame and one two-story brick buildings. Cleburne Chronicle, August 9, What is a Grange? The organization informed members of the best time to sell and how to price for their products. Grange officers wore costumes and ceremonial regalia.

They also offered help for widowed women. In August of the Bethesda Baptist Church 6 miles south of Burleson organized in a small log cabin on the plantation of Pleasant Inman. John H. Boyd and his wife moved to Johnson County in where they settled near Grandview where he farmed the land. In Mr. Boyd was elected Justice of the Peace for that precinct. Sheriff Boyd was elected four times and served until when he retired to his farm in the southern part of the county. Following the Civil War William Love Clifton destroyed a sheepskin Texas Land Grant he inherited from his father and his step-mother because he had not worked and improved the land as required by his traditional Irish beliefs.

The land grant was for thirteen acres of downtown Cleburne! After trains arrived in Johnson County, cattle ranching changed. The days of the Chisholm were numbered. The Gatewood home still stands two miles south of Cleburne. In the Cleburne Chronicle was located at E. Wardville Street and operated by Major Jack Davis. There were several owners, but A. Scurlock bought the Chronicle in and ran it for twenty-five years. In the Palace Saloon thrived on the north side of the square in Cleburne.

When T. I don't think the saloon here had gambling, but I may be wrong! Caddo Peak, two miles northwest of Joshua is the highest point in Johnson County at an elevation of 1, feet above sea level. The Caddo Indians used the peak for signaling, which could be seen from Comanche Peak, 24 miles to the west and beyond to Chalk Mountain.

William J. William was a Santa Fe Railroad conductor. His reports were criticized for being too lengthy and detailed. In the Johnson County Court ordered that an election be held to determine whether the citizens of Johnson County would submit to a tax levy for the purpose of providing arms for the common defense. The tax levy passed and the following cavalries were organized:. J Neal Captain. Shannon Captain. Formwalt Captain.

Morrow Captain. The horse took fright and dragged the man to his death. Kirtley, settled on Chambers Creek at the site of what is now Grandview in On May 16, he received a grant of land and built a log cabin where he began to trade with both Indian and Angelo settlers. Samuel Billingsley and his wife, Temperance pictured below came to Alvarado in Eight other Billingsley families moved to the community swelling the population by fifty people which doubled the population of Johnson County. The Billingsley helped establish the first school at Alvarado and built a horse-powered mill. In the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries the west side of the square in Cleburne was nothing but brothels and saloons.

A proper lady did not walk on that side of the square, even with an escort. In a herd of cattle was purchased in Johnson County. This herd was driven out on the Chisholm trail and may have been on their way to feed southern troops during the Civil War. In Marystown, four miles east of Joshua had two churches, a school, two stores and a drug store with a population of about people. The earliest settler near Marystown was Rev.

Wilshire who began farming in the community in He had a family of seven children. Neal was elected captain; W. Shannon was elected captain of the Second Company; A. Frizzel, the Third Company; J. Foomwalt, the Fourth Company; H. Bruce, the Fifth Company; H. Cathey, the Eighth Company and H. Hart, the Ninth Company. Captain Bruce was captured at the battle of Honey Springs in and spent the rest of the war in Federal prison camps in the north. Samuel Bonaparte Kirkham was born in Kentucky in He was one of the first settlers in Johnson County.

Kirkham was a farmer, blacksmith and scout. He assisted Col. Middleton Tate Johnson in selecting the site for a new fort. That fort became Fort Worth, Texas. His descendants still live in Johnson County. He was an army scout and then a showman billed along with Annie Oakley.

In he was involved in a gunfight in Cleburne. In sections of the Texas frontier, including Johnsons County, where courts and jails had not been fully established or where officials and juries could not be depended upon, committees of vigilance were often formed to stamp out lawlessness and rid communities of desperadoes. In the citizens of Alvarado united to rid the county of B. Bickerstaff and J. These two individuals were guilty of murder, theft and rustling cattle and horses in the Alvarado area.

The citizens shot the two to death on the town square. Sometimes these secret bodies degenerated into mob rule or were used for private vengeance, but usually they were made up of law-abiding, responsible citizens who wanted only to maintain order and to protect lives and property. They operated against murderers, horse thieves, cattle rustlers, and those who held up stagecoaches and trains.

Sometimes they acted without warning, but often they gave notice for offenders to leave. Those who failed to do so might be caught and hanged. Fielding L. Kirtley establish a post office in Grandview on April 4, He was also the first to hold Baptist Church services in the county. Kirtley donated 2. One of the most spectacular interior spaces in the Johnson County courthouse is the six-story central atrium.

Rising from the basement level, the atrium has Georgia creole marble facing the corner walls and balconies on the first, second, and third floors. Rich Sullivanesque detailing is found along the cornice, architraves, and along the chamfered corners. An octagonal art glass skylight crowns the atrium. The Caddo Grove Seminary opened in February of Caddo Grove is located about two miles from Joshua on the old Chisholm Trail. The Seminary was soon recognized as the most prestigious school on the northern frontier of Texas.

The two story frame building could accommodate about 65 students. Teachers included E. Richard "Dick" Smith Sewell, his wife Polona and their family came to Texas to educate freed slaves who lived in Nathan. Dick was the richest man of color in Johnson County at the time. He lived to be 96 years old and liked to tell stories about his youth when he took part in cattle drives from Bosque County to Wichita, Kansas. In March of the Austin American Statesman reported that the State of Texas had exhausted its medical oxygen supply in an attempt to save the life of Ed Hutchins who was a prominent merchant in Grandview and jointly owned around acres in the Grandview area.

Hutchins passed away in spite of all efforts to save him. In September of the Southwest Adventist University in Keene, established in celebrated its year anniversary. The university was built in Keene before roads were paved and trees were cleared for residential homes. The picture below shows the original school house and students. The university now has over students from 36 states, 35 countries and 10 denominations. I little break from the usually entries, but too funny not to post.

John Percifield sent this yesterday. The Johnson County Commissioners in were: top row R. Drennean, and John I. Rogers; bottom row G. Humphries, Judge F.

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Adams Adams School was named after the judge and John W. Two asylums in Cleburne?! In Charley Harvey was riding his horse to the store in Sand Flat when he saw a car parked under a tree and stopped to see if they needed help. Well when Charley got off his horse he was met by a woman with a gun. She told him to get back on his horse, go home and keep your mouth shut.

The woman was Bonnie Parker. Burleson High School class of consisted of 10 students. Second Row: Verner G. Griffing, Roy N. Faries, Clyde H. Griffing and Edwin H. Back Row: Supertendent J. Tibbets and John S. On June 29, John Wilkins was hung for the murder of Mr. A crowd of approximately 15, people came to Cleburne to watch the hanging.

On July 23, the town of Rio Vista suffered a devastating fire thought to have started in Z. Class Room 11 at the Santa Fe School is pictured below in Rosser first row far right was a teacher at the school. He later became principal of the Santa Fe School, then principal at J. Long and Joshua schools. On January 20, Sheriff E. Heath and Maj. A few miles beyond Hillsboro they were overtaken by four masked riders who held them up at gun point and stole the money! March 31, A skeleton was unearthed in a field near Antioch when Mr.

Calloway who cultivates the field had his plow break. When he attempted to dig up the obstruction, he discovered a skeleton. The skeleton was very tall and considering the wearing of the teeth was believed to be that of an older individual. Due to various flint and arrowheads found in the vicinity, it was determined to be that of a Native American male.

On August 1, the Cleburne Daily Review reported that two children, Jennie Adkins, aged 9 and Bessie Foote, aged 10 were playing with a 38 caliber revolver when it accidentally discharged resulting in little Jennie being shot through the shoulder. Alexander stated Jennie would be fine and as of last evening she was resting easily at her home in west Cleburne. Johnson County citizens sent donations of food and supplies to the storm tossed Waco residents. In the picture below Jimmy Hollingsworth hands another box f supplies to Charles D. Kirkham, Jr. In Barnesville had two grist mills, a cotton gin, two churches, a school and a population of Today all that is left of Barnesville is a small cemetery.

In Moses Barnes built a cotton gin and in a town site was laid off and a post office was built. A school was built in Railroads did not pass near the town causing it to disappear by Park Hardware of Alvarado was the second oldest business institution in Johnson County. Baker, Mrs.

White, Mrs. Andrews, Mrs. Gibbs, Mrs. Wright, Mrs. Parks and Elizabeth Stepp. In Cleburne had a Concert Band: J. Bennett, B Base; E. Clack, First Tenor; T. Hunter, Second Cornet; E. McKenzie, Solo Cornet; D. Murray, Bariton; W. Shaw, First Alto; H. Lemmon, Tuba; W. McPhearson, Second Alto; A. Shaw, B Flat Tenor; A. Vernon, Tuba. In Charles C. Taylor, Sr. The store bought eggs, vegetables, butter and fire wood from the farmers or traded for goods. They also bought cotton, corn and peanuts and sold them in the store.

The store extended credit to the farmers for seed, food and clothing until their crops were harvested. The Cleburne City Directory listed five dentists: Dr. Streetman, upstairs on the east side of the square; Dr. Clements, over Favorite Dry Goods Co. In Vincent Gray opened a hardware store and undertaking business at the intersection of Chambers and Anglin streets. The building later became the Garza Building. Gray could build your coffin and bury you too!

A stage on the second floor which is still there was originally used for funeral viewings. Later Soiled Doves women of ill repute and scant clothing danced across the same stage. On August 5, the Cleburne Chronicle reported that Wesley Smith of Alvarado was killed when a large navy six shooter was taken from the house to be placed with baggage in a wagon. While handling the weapon it dropped from the scabbard on the wheel and went off killing young Mr.

The church was named in honor of Bishop M. Salter, and for a short time services were held in the homes of the Goodwin and Sims families on Front Street. It was relocated in to South Brazos Avenue with Rev. George Ballard as Pastor. In the church was moved to Olive Street on land donated by the Charles Alexander family. Beasley took over the pastorship. Joseph Noe, his wife Ella and their four children came to Johnson County in and settled on a farm located on the old Alvarado Highway. Their children attended grades at the school in Bethesda which was about three miles away.

In order to continue through high school, transportation was needed. Through the combined efforts of the parents, the Bethesda School and Johnson County officials, a bus was provided. The body was built by a furniture manufacturing company in Keene and mounted on a Model T Chassis. Reportedly this was the first school bus in Johnson County. It carried students to Alvarado High School for a little over 2 years. In Ken W. Noe constructed the first school bus to serve the Burleson School District. This bus seated between students. Joe Noe furnished the bus with gas and drove it for about 4 years.

In June of little Arthur Billingsly was found floating face down in Buffalo Creek about a half mile south of the Cleburne square. A jury of inquest was empaneled by Phil T. Allen, Justice of the Peace, John County Precinct 1 to examine the cause of death which was determined to be a blow to the head and drowning in the creek. Several young boys who were previously seen with the deceased were questioned but no evidence regarding the death was found. Later a woman who was washing clothes on the creek said she saw young Arthur go by and shortly after, a boy about 14 or 15 years of age passed going the same way.

The case is still unsolved. In Cleburne city government consisted of a Mayor, W. Goldsmith; a Mayor Pro Tem, M. Weakley; a Marshall, J. Goldsmith; a Treasurer, Mrs. Jerrine Hughes; Assessor and Collector, J. Post; City Engineer, C. Teesdale; City Auditor, J. Hoffman; Chief of Police, J. Osborn; and a Street Commissioner, Andy Holt. The Cleburne High School year book stated that the school organized an athletic association under the chairmanship of principal J.

Other faculty members on the governing council were W. Ownsby, C. A Cushman and Miss Edna Graham. Andrews, manager. The girls basketball team included: top row left — right Sue Mildred Lee, forward; Almarine Harris, center; C. Cushman, coach; Mildred Herscher, guard; Vera Davis, guard. In the East Ward elementary school girls basketball team played the CHS girls basketball team.

Note : Sorry, I couldn't find the names of these players. They told the Cleburne Bulletin newspaper the Gin was in order and they had plenty of able bodied men on their crew. On July 20, the Cleburne Enterprise newspaper reported that a fishing party on the Nolan River caught over pounds of fish! Baines pastor; St. Halbert Pastor; Baptist Church, Rev. Jones, Pastor; C. Church, Rev. Branch, Pastor. On August 9, , three miles east of Cleburne, vigilantes shot a boy for horse stealing then dropped his body down a well.

The two story building was built by Professor McKensey and would accommodate students. Did you know that in Cleburne had four colleges? Mahan, President, Mrs. Mahan, Principle of Ladies Department; St. On August 30, an electric interurban express line between Fort Worth and Cleburne began operation. It operated until William Combs was one of the founders of Alvarado and was one of the Texans who signed the petition to create Johnson County.

On October 3, the Cleburne-to-Fort Worth stage was robbed by two men wearing calico bags over their heads. Finding no money in the mail they searched some of the passengers, taking only 30 cents, which they returned. Alvarado was established on an old Indian trail. Chambers and Thomas Smith surveyed the area in They reported meeting friendly Native Americans there.

In the site where Venus stands today was a cornfield owned by Jabe Smyth. The town was laid out in and in August of the Santa Fe opened a depot in Venus. Brown was also known as the last word in Texas fashion. In the photo below she was wearing a ruffled organdie dress, had hair puffs over the ears and spit curls.

He went on to be mayor of Austin in On August 29, Johnson County was flooded with Seven people were drowned in Cleburne and dozens of others were rescued from tree tops. Crops were damaged all over the county. Lucinda Briden was the first white woman settler and first woman landowner in Johnson County. She passed away in and is buried in a small cemetery located at the mouth of Haley Branch near the banks of the Nolan River where her home stood.

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In the Red Oak Academy was built on the mound in Burleson but closed in after a typhoid outbreak killed several students. When the citizens of Alvarado advised him that it was against the law to sell whiskey there, he swore he would sell whiskey, law or no law. The Santa Fe Shops were built and the rest is history. During these years the population of Cleburne jumped from 3, in to approximately 10, by On April 10, citizens of Alvarado organized for the purpose of putting down lawlessness.

Robbery, cattle rustling and even murder had reached a point that something had to be done. The Reece Prairie Community was established northwest of present day Joshua in The community was named for John Reece. There is little known about him except that the community used his name. One of the older families who grew up in the Reece Prairie Community and still live at Joshua are the Hildebrands.

Hildebrand came to the area in On January 9, an article in the Cleburne Chronicle urged people to clean out and wall up the springs on Buffalo Creek. Alvarado was incorporated in June of The area was first settled by William Balch in He built a trading post and layed out a townsite. Onslott was the first sheriff and named the town Alvarado after an admired friend he fought with during the Mexican War.

Buchanan, five miles northwest of Cleburne, was established in and selected as the second county seat in a special election held on October 4 of that year, after the discovery that the original county seat, Wardville, was more than six miles from the county's geographic center. Following the completion of a log courthouse, the first term of the county court met at Buchanan on February 16, The county court continued to meet in Buchanan for just over ten years. A post office opened there in , and during the following year a jail was completed.

An inadequate water supply, however, severely hampered growth. In the state legislature designated a portion of western Johnson County for inclusion in the newly established Hood County. This shift of territory reduced Johnson County's size and relocated its geographic center so that Buchanan was no longer within six miles of it. In a special election on March 23, , county voters chose a new county seat, Camp Henderson, which became Cleburne. Buchanan lost its post office in and was abandoned by Courtesy of Texas State Historical Association. On March 10, fire destroyed many buildings on the south side of the square in Cleburne.

During October of millions of grasshoppers flew all over Johnson County causing damage to fall crops! On April 15, the Johnson County courthouse burned down. City Marshall Bledsoe was the only fatality. Ironically, the Titanic sank the same day. Pictured below are Mr. Henry Briden and his wife were the first settlers in Johnson County. He came to the United States as a stowaway with only his clothes and a Bible.

He served in the Texas Rangers for two years before meeting Lucinda Sevier while working as a surveyor for her father. They were the first settlers in Johnson County. The cabin, 16 foot square with a fireplace has been restored and is now located on Highway in Rio Vista. Henry Taack, Mr. Tom Sloan and Lola Sloan. On November 25, there were two incidents of runaway horses in Cleburne.

One was pulling a coal wagon and the other was pulling a delivery wagon. During the first week of September in a stalk of corn was displayed in Cleburne that measured 14 feet 7 inches tall! Is there hidden treasure near Grandview in the small area now known as Island Grove? A story told by an old Comanche says there is. The story goes that in the early part of the 18 th century a group of outlaws robbed a convent in Monterey, Mexico of a large amount of gold.

They retreated north, fleeing from the Mexican Army. The Army finally turned back after crossing the Rio Grande. The outlaws, led by a man named Mendosa, fled further north intending to enter the US and spend their loot. They were camped near Island Grove when they were surrounded by a Comanche war party. They buried the gold and Mendosa made a primitive map of its location on a buffalo hide and hid it under his saddle. Their firepower allowed them to escape the Comanche, intending to return later for the gold. As they fled, Mendosa and the outlaws with his group were followed by the Comanche warriors.

The men surrendered but were immediately killed by the Comanche warriors. Afterwards, the warriors found the map and kept it as a souvenir. Its whereabouts are now unknown. People have searched for the treasure ever since. But all that has been found, so far, are a couple of old Mexican horse bits. Even today treasure hunters continue to search for the treasure of Island Grove. On October 12, Caddo Grove located about 8 miles northeast of Cleburne was founded and opened a post office.

McKinsey, an area pioneer, operated a small school from his home in the area that was founded in By , fifty-three students enrolled in the school. In February, , the school became public and was called Caddo Grove Seminary. It became recognized as the most prestigious school on the northern frontier of Texas. The railroad was established in in the nearby town of Joshua, causing the town of Caddo Grove to become abandoned.

Below is a photo of Caddo Grove School in On May 4, a tornado struck near Robinson Branch and Bono destroying homes and killing several people. On July 29, there was a total eclipse. In Buchanan, a man who had not known of the coming astronomical show thought the end of the world had come when it started getting dark. He killed his child and himself. Wright bought the third car manufactured by the Cleburne Motor Car Company in He used it as a delivery van for his dry goods store.

In the second week of August in an foot alligator was killed in the Brazos River near Kimball. Alligators, in the Brazos in north central Texas??!! In the Johnson County seat, courthouse and jail were moved from Buchanan to Cleburne, the new county seat. A new courthouse was soon built on the square and opened April 6, He was captured on July 17, in Arkansas. His cabin can still be seen in Rio Vista. Burnetta College, at Venus, operated from to under the sponsorship of the Disciples of Christ. The school was named for Burnetta Barnes. Leach, who became the school's first president. This decision was reversed on appeal, and the Supreme Court upheld the reversal; two dissenters John Paul Stevens and Stephen Breyer took Sotomayor's position.

In Castle Rock Entertainment, Inc. Carol Publishing Group also in , Sotomayor ruled that a book of trivia from the television program Seinfeld infringed on the copyright of the show's producer and did not constitute legal fair use. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit , which was vacated by J. Daniel Mahoney. Therefore, the Republican majority decided to slow her confirmation. During her September hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee , Sotomayor parried strong questioning from some Republican members about mandatory sentencing , gay rights , and her level of respect for Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas.

Ranking Democratic committee member Patrick Leahy objected to Republican use of a secret hold to slow down the Sotomayor nomination, and Leahy attributed that anonymous tactic to GOP reticence about publicly opposing a female Hispanic nominee. Straub —who, although advanced by Clinton and supported by Senator Moynihan, was considered much more acceptable by Republicans—in an unsuccessful effort to force earlier consideration of the Sotomayor confirmation.

During , several Hispanic organizations organized a petition drive in New York State, generating hundreds of signatures from New Yorkers to try to convince New York Republican senator Al D'Amato to push the Senate leadership to bring Sotomayor's nomination to a vote. It is stereotyping, and stereotyping is perhaps the most insidious of all problems in our society today. Over her ten years on the Second Circuit, Sotomayor heard appeals in more than 3, cases and wrote about opinions where she was in the majority.

Sotomayor's circuit court rulings led to her being considered a political centrist by the ABA Journal [74] [] and other sources and organizations. Across some cases involving business and civil law, Sotomayor's rulings were generally unpredictable and not consistently pro-business or anti-business. In the Court of Appeals seat, Sotomayor gained a reputation for vigorous and blunt behavior toward lawyers appealing before her, sometimes to the point of brusque and curt treatment or testy interruptions. Attorney Sheema Chaudhry said, "She's brilliant and she's qualified, but I just feel that she can be very, how do you say, temperamental.

Lefcourt said, "She used her questioning to make a point, as opposed to really looking for an answer to a question she did not understand. Wesley said that his interactions with Sotomayor had been "totally antithetical to this perception that has gotten some traction that she is somehow confrontational. In the decision Center for Reproductive Law and Policy v. Bush , [] Sotomayor upheld the Bush administration 's implementation of the Mexico City Policy , which states that "the United States will no longer contribute to separate nongovernmental organizations which perform or actively promote abortion as a method of family planning in other nations.

In Pappas v. Giuliani , [] Sotomayor dissented from her colleagues' ruling that the New York Police Department could terminate from his desk job an employee who sent racist materials through the mail. Sotomayor argued that the First Amendment protected speech by the employee "away from the office, on [his] own time", even if that speech was "offensive, hateful, and insulting", and that therefore the employee's First Amendment claim should have gone to trial rather than being dismissed on summary judgment.

In , Sotomayor wrote the opinion for United States v. Some members of the media had wanted to publish the names of the jurors deciding Quattrone's case, and a district court had issued an order to forbid the publication of the juror's names.

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In United States v. Quattrone , Sotomayor wrote the opinion for the Second Circuit panel striking down this order on First Amendment grounds, stating that the media should be free to publish the names of the jurors. The first trial ended in a deadlocked jury and a mistrial, and the district court ordered the media not to publish the names of jurors, even though those names had been disclosed in open court.

Sotomayor held that although it was important to protect the fairness of the retrial, the district court's order was an unconstitutional prior restraint on free speech and violated the right of the press "to report freely on events that transpire in an open courtroom". In , Sotomayor was on a three-judge panel in Doninger v.

Niehoff [] that unanimously affirmed, in an opinion written by Second Circuit Judge Debra Livingston , the district court's judgment that Lewis S. Mills High School did not violate the First Amendment rights of a student when it barred her from running for student government after she called the superintendent and other school officials "douchebags" in a blog post written while off-campus that encouraged students to call an administrator and "piss her off more".

Sotomayor was part of the three-judge Second Circuit panel that affirmed the district court's ruling in Maloney v. Cuomo The Second Circuit's per curiam opinion noted that the Supreme Court has not, so far, ever held that the Second Amendment is binding against state governments. On the contrary, in Presser v. Illinois , a Supreme Court case from , the Supreme Court held that the Second Amendment "is a limitation only upon the power of Congress and the national government, and not upon that of the state". Illinois precedent, the panel stated that only the Supreme Court has "the prerogative of overruling its own decisions," [] and the recent Supreme Court case of District of Columbia v.

Heller which struck down the district's gun ban as unconstitutional did "not invalidate this longstanding principle". Cuomo , citing the case in their decision turning back a challenge to Chicago 's gun laws and noting the Supreme Court precedents remain in force until altered by the Supreme Court itself. While Sotomayor agreed that some of the strip searches at issue in the case were lawful, she would have held that due to "the severely intrusive nature of strip searches", [] they should not be allowed "in the absence of individualized suspicion, of adolescents who have never been charged with a crime".

In Leventhal v. Knapek , [] Sotomayor rejected a Fourth Amendment challenge by a U. Department of Transportation employee whose employer searched his office computer. She held that, "Even though [the employee] had some expectation of privacy in the contents of his office computer, the investigatory searches by the DOT did not violate his Fourth Amendment rights" [] because here "there were reasonable grounds to believe" that the search would reveal evidence of "work-related misconduct".

In , Sotomayor was part of the judge panel that ruled in Swedenburg v. Kelly that New York's law prohibiting out-of-state wineries from shipping directly to consumers in New York was constitutional even though in-state wineries were allowed to. The case, which invoked the 21st Amendment , was appealed and attached to another case. The case reached the Supreme Court later on as Swedenburg v. Kelly and was overruled in a 5—4 decision that found the law was discriminatory and unconstitutional. Sotomayor was involved in the high-profile case Ricci v.

DeStefano that initially upheld the right of the City of New Haven to throw out its test for firefighters and start over with a new test, because the City believed the test had a "disparate impact" [] on minority firefighters. No black firefighters qualified for promotion under the test, whereas some had qualified under tests used in previous years.

The City chose not to certify the test results and a lower court had previously upheld the City's right to do this. Several white firefighters and one Hispanic firefighter who had passed the test, including the lead plaintiff who has dyslexia and had put much extra effort into studying, sued the City of New Haven, claiming that their rights were violated. A Second Circuit panel that included Sotomayor first issued a brief, unsigned summary order not written by Sotomayor affirming the lower court's ruling. Cabranes , by now a fellow judge on the court, objected to this handling and requested that the court hear it en banc.

In Clarett v. National Football League , [] Sotomayor upheld the National Football League 's eligibility rules requiring players to wait three full seasons after high school graduation before entering the NFL draft.

Maurice Clarett challenged these rules, which were part of the collective bargaining agreement between the NFL and its players, on antitrust grounds. Sotomayor held that Clarett's claim would upset the established "federal labor law favoring and governing the collective bargaining process".

Dabit , [] Sotomayor wrote a unanimous opinion that the Securities Litigation Uniform Standards Act of did not preempt class action claims in state courts by stockbrokers alleging misleading inducement to buy or sell stocks. In Specht v. Netscape Communications Corp. In Correctional Services Corp. Malesko , [] Sotomayor, writing for the court, supported the right of an individual to sue a private corporation working on behalf of the federal government for alleged violations of that individual's constitutional rights.

Reversing a lower court decision, Sotomayor found that an existing Supreme Court doctrine, known as " Bivens "—which allows suits against individuals working for the federal government for constitutional rights violations—could be applied to the case of a former prisoner seeking to sue the private company operating the federal halfway house facility in which he resided. The Supreme Court reversed Sotomayor's ruling in a 5—4 decision, saying that the Bivens doctrine could not be expanded to cover private entities working on behalf of the federal government.

In Gant v. Wallingford Board of Education , [] the parents of a black student alleged that he had been harassed due to his race and had been discriminated against when he was transferred from a first grade class to a kindergarten class without parental consent, while similarly situated white students were treated differently. Sotomayor agreed with the dismissal of the harassment claims due to lack of evidence, but would have allowed the discrimination claim to go forward. She wrote in dissent that the grade transfer was "contrary to the school's established policies" as well as its treatment of white students, which "supports the inference that race discrimination played a role".

In Krimstock v. Kelly , [] Sotomayor wrote an opinion halting New York City's practice of seizing the motor vehicles of drivers accused of driving while intoxicated and some other crimes and holding those vehicles for "months or even years" during criminal proceedings. Noting the importance of cars to many individuals' livelihoods or daily activities, she held that it violated individuals' due process rights to hold the vehicles without permitting the owners to challenge the City's continued possession of their property.

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In Brody v. Village of Port Chester and , [] a takings case, Sotomayor first ruled in for a unanimous panel that a property owner in Port Chester, New York was permitted to challenge the state's Eminent Domain Procedure Law. A district court subsequently rejected the plaintiff's claims and upon appeal the case found itself again with the Second Circuit. In , Sotomayor ruled with a panel majority that the property owner's due process rights had been violated by lack of adequate notice to him of his right to challenge a village order that his land should be used for a redevelopment project.

However, the panel supported the village's taking of the property for public use. In Didden v. Village of Port Chester , [] an unrelated case brought about by the same town's actions, Sotomayor joined a unanimous panel's summary order to uphold a trial court's dismissal — due to a statute of limitations lapse — of a property owner's objection to his land being condemned for a redevelopment project. The ruling further said that even without the lapse, the owner's petition would be denied due to application of the Supreme Court's recent Kelo v.

City of New London ruling. The Second Circuit's reasoning drew criticism from libertarian commentators. Following Barack Obama 's presidential election victory, speculation arose that Sotomayor could be a leading candidate for a Supreme Court seat. The empathy to understand what it's like to be poor, or African-American, or gay, or disabled, or old. Sotomayor's nomination won praise from Democrats and liberals, and Democrats appeared to have sufficient votes to confirm her.

DeStefano received the most attention during the early nomination discussion, [] motivated by the Republican desire to focus on the reverse racial discrimination aspect of the case. Cuomo and was motivated by gun ownership advocates concerned about her interpretation of Second Amendment rights. Sotomayor's confirmation hearings before the Senate Judiciary Committee began on July 13, , during which she backed away from her "wise Latina" remark, declaring it "a rhetorical flourish that fell flat" and stating that "I do not believe that any ethnic, racial or gender group has an advantage in sound judgment.

On July 28, , the Senate Judiciary Committee voted 13—6 in favor of Sotomayor's nomination, sending it to the full Senate for a final confirmation vote. Every Democrat voted in her favor, as did one Republican, Lindsey Graham. All Democrats present, along with the Senate's two Independents plus nine Republicans, voted for her. President Obama commissioned Sotomayor on the day of her confirmation, [] and her swearing-in ceremony took place on August 8, , at the Supreme Court Building. Chief Justice John Roberts administered the prescribed constitutional and judicial oaths of office, at which time she became the th justice 99th associate justice of the Supreme Court.

Sotomayor cast her first vote as an associate Supreme Court justice on August 17, , in a stay of execution case. Federal Election Commission. It involved the controversial aspect of the First Amendment and the rights of corporations in campaign finance; [] Sotomayor dissented. Sotomayor's first major written opinion was a dissent in the Berghuis v.

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  7. Thompkins case dealing with Miranda rights. Sebelius , Sotomayor showed her increasing familiarity with the Court and its protocols by directing the opening questions of the arguments to Donald Verrilli , the Solicitor General who was representing the government's position. In succeeding Justice Souter, Sotomayor had done little to change the philosophical and ideological balance of the Court. However, there is a wide divergence among Catholics in general in their approaches to the law. There have been some deviations from the ideological pattern.

    In a book on the Roberts Court, author Marcia Coyle assessed Sotomayor's position on the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment as a strong guarantee of the right of a defendant to confront his or her accusers. On January 20 and 21, , Sotomayor administered the oath to Vice President Joe Biden for the inauguration of his second term. Sotomayor became the first Hispanic and fourth woman to administer the oath to a president or vice president. By the end of her fifth year on the court, Sotomayor had become especially visible in oral arguments and in passionate dissents from various majority rulings, especially those involving issues of race, gender and ethnic identity.

    In her reading of the constitutionality of the Obama health care law favoring the poor and disabled, she sided with Ginsburg against fellow liberals Breyer and Kagan. Our society is too complex to use that kind of analysis. Mazda , which the court decided unanimously, she wrote a separate concurring opinion.

    Coyle, in her book on the Roberts Court stated that: "Both women are more vocal during arguments than the justices whom they succeeded, and they have energized the moderate-liberal side of the bench. During her tenure on the court, Sotomayor has also become recognizable as being among the court's strongest voices in supporting the rights of the accused. In January , Bonnie Kristian of The Week wrote that an "unexpected civil libertarian alliance" was developing between Sotomayor and Neil Gorsuch "in defense of robust due process rights and skepticism of law enforcement overreach. North Carolina was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that age is relevant when determining police custody for Miranda purposes.

    Sotomayor was assigned to write the majority opinion in the case. A police investigator visited J. During the trial, attempts to suppress the statements given by J. The case was appealed and the Supreme Court agreed to hear the case. Sotomayor's opinion for the Court held that a child's age properly informs the Miranda custody analysis.

    Her opinion underscored the dangers of not applying age to the custody analysis, writing: "to hold California where the Court held that a child's age "would have affected how a reasonable person" in the suspect's position "would perceive his or her freedom to leave". Yarborough v. Alvarado was also cited, where the Court wrote that a child's age "generates commonsense conclusions about behavior and perception". Finally, Sotomayor's opinion pointed out that the law reflects the idea that a child's judgment is not the same as an adult's, in the form of legal disqualifications on children as a class e.

    Sotomayor's opinion was challenged by Associate Justice Samuel Alito who wrote a dissenting opinion for four Justices. Alvarez , involving judicial review in which the Court struck down the Stolen Valor Act , a federal law that criminalized false statements about having a military medal.

    The law had been passed as an effort to stem instances where people falsely claimed to have won the medal in an attempt to protect the "valor" of those who really had. While a majority of the Supreme Court agreed that the law was unconstitutional under the First Amendment 's free speech protections, it could not agree on a single rationale. Sotomayor was among four justices, along with Justices Roberts, Ginsburg and Kennedy, who concluded that a statement's falsity is not enough, by itself, to exclude speech from First Amendment protection.

    Justices Breyer and Kagan concluded that while false statements were entitled to some protection, the Stolen Valor Act was invalid because it could have achieved its objectives in less restrictive ways. Justices Scalia, Thomas and Alito were in dissent. Most visibly during the term, in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius , Sotomayor was part of a landmark 5—4 majority that upheld most of the provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act while being part of a dissent against the reliance upon the Constitution's Taxing and Spending Clause rather than Commerce Clause in arriving at the support.

    Legal writer Jeffrey Toobin wrote, "Sotomayor's concerns tended toward the earthbound and practical. Sometimes, during oral arguments, she would go on tangents involving detailed questions about the facts of cases that would leave her colleagues stupefied, sinking into their chairs. This time, though, she had a simple line of inquiry. States require individuals to buy automobile insurance implicitly suggesting the unavoidable comparison to health insurance and the fairness of the applying the same principle to health insurance as well.

    In another high-profile June decision at the end of her third term, Sotomayor was part of a 5—3 majority in Arizona v. United States that struck down several aspects of the Arizona SB anti-illegal immigration law. In , Sotomayor's wrote an unjoined concurrence in United States v. Jones decision, in which she said that in the digital age, "It may be necessary to reconsider the premise that an individual has no reasonable expectation of privacy in information voluntarily disclosed to third parties.

    On July 3, , six justices ordered an injunction that allowed Wheaton College of Illinois, a religiously affiliated university, an exemption from complying with Affordable Care Act's mandate on contraception. Hobby Lobby , in which the conservative bloc had prevailed, and was opposed by the court's three female members: Sotomayor, Ginsburg and Kagan. They suggested that the Hobby Lobby decision was not the Court's conclusive opinion on birth control. In her dissent to the injunction, Sotomayor wrote that, "Those who are bound by our decisions usually believe they can take us at our word Not today.

    Sotomayor has maintained a public presence, mostly through making speeches, since joining the federal judiciary and throughout her time on the Supreme Court. Sotomayor long lived in Greenwich Village in New York City and had few financial assets other than her home. There isn't anything there to report. I walk out and I see all kinds of people, which is the environment I grew up in and the environment I love.

    She takes several daily insulin injections, [] and her diabetes is considered to be well controlled. The trappings are not important to me, but, yes, I do believe in God. And, yes, I do believe in the commandments. Sotomayor said of the years following her divorce, that "I have found it difficult to maintain a relationship while I've pursued my career. In July , Sotomayor signed a contract with Alfred A.

    Knopf to publish a memoir about the early part of her life. It focuses on her life up to , with recollections of growing up in housing projects in New York and descriptions of the challenges she faced. It's an eloquent and affecting testament to the triumph of brains and hard work over circumstance, of a childhood dream realized through extraordinary will and dedication. On December 31, , Sotomayor pressed the ceremonial button and led the final second countdown at the Times Square New Year's Eve ball drop , being the first United States Supreme Court justice to perform the task.

    She was elected a member of the American Philosophical Society in In June , the Bronxdale Houses development, where Sotomayor grew up, was renamed after her. While many New York housing developments are named after well-known people, this was only the second to be named after a former resident. Sotomayor Learning Academies , a public high school complex in Los Angeles , was named after her.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Supreme Court Justice. Kevin Noonan m. Main article: Sonia Sotomayor Supreme Court nomination.

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